Clay Mineralogy

These web notes have been prepared by Dr. Paul Schroeder and are intended for distribution to the students enrolled in his class. You are welcome view these pages, but if you want to download and incorporate any of this work into other web sites or publications, then permission is required.

The textbook for this class is X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals by Duane M. Moore and Robert C. Reynolds, Jr. (1997) 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, New York 378 p.

Topic (subject to change)
Introduction, definitions, related fields and links for Clay Mineralogy
Crystal chemistry review
Principles of X-rays - absorption phenomenon
Theoretical X-ray powder diffraction - Bragg's Law
X-ray diffraction data collection
Theoretical X-ray powder diffraction - Layer factors
Theoretical X-ray powder diffraction - Interference function
X-ray diffraction data processing
Classification of hydrous layered silicates - nomenclature
Hydrous layered silicates - 1:1 structures
Sample preparation methods for XRD
Hydrous layered silicates - high charge 2:1 structures
Hydrous layered silicates - low charge 2:1 structures
Sample preparation recipes for XRD
Ionic radii and structural formula calculations
XRD identification
XRD identification of discrete clay minerals - illite, chlorite, kaolinite
XRD identification of discrete clay minerals - smectite, vermiculite
Mixed-layer clays and their XRD identification - Probabilities
Mixed-layer clays and their XRD identification - NEWMOD
Calculation of mixed-layer clay diffraction patterns
Quantitative XRD analysis of mineral mixtures part 1
Quantitative XRD analysis of mineral mixtures part 2
Electron optics
Reciprocal lattice
Electron diffraction
The geochemistry of clays - Thermodynamic review
The geochemistry of clays - Activity coefficients
Equilibrium adsorption and ion exchange
Isotherms and multi-valence exchange
Neo-formation reaction mechanisms for clays
Weathering reactions
Clay mineral reactions in natural systems
Weathering reactions and stability diagrams
Rates of clay mineral formation

Each student is expected complete a project on the subject of their choice. The topic must pertain to some aspect of clay mineralogy (either a lab project or a library referenced paper are possible). An abstract, figures, and list of references should be provided. Grade is determined as follows: Midterm exam (20%), Final exam (30%), Homework (40%), Project(10%).